SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa

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SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa

bdates
Hi, all.

I've been checking my syntaxes for inter-rater reliability against other syntaxes using the same data set. For example, I've used two SAS macros, MAGREE.SAS and INTER_RATER.MAC. These two and mine for Fleiss kappa provide results for category kappa's with standard errors, significances, and 95% CI's. The results are the same for each macro, but vastly different than the SPSS Python extension, which presents the same standard error for each category kappa. I've checked both the 1971 and 1979 articles by Fleiss, and they confirm the fact that each category standard error is based on data from that category, which of course would make each standard error different in most cases. Just a heads up if you're using the category kappa's from the Python extension. The programming needs revision.

Brian
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Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa

Bruce Weaver
Administrator
Thanks for the heads up, Brian.  Are you able to share the data set and the
correct results?  

Cheers,
Bruce


bdates wrote

> Hi, all.
>
> I've been checking my syntaxes for inter-rater reliability against other
> syntaxes using the same data set. For example, I've used two SAS macros,
> MAGREE.SAS and INTER_RATER.MAC. These two and mine for Fleiss kappa
> provide results for category kappa's with standard errors, significances,
> and 95% CI's. The results are the same for each macro, but vastly
> different than the SPSS Python extension, which presents the same standard
> error for each category kappa. I've checked both the 1971 and 1979
> articles by Fleiss, and they confirm the fact that each category standard
> error is based on data from that category, which of course would make each
> standard error different in most cases. Just a heads up if you're using
> the category kappa's from the Python extension. The programming needs
> revision.
>
> Brian
> =====================
> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to

> LISTSERV@.UGA

>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
> command. To leave the list, send the command
> SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
> For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
> INFO REFCARD





-----
--
Bruce Weaver
[hidden email]
http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/

"When all else fails, RTFM."

NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.

--
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=====================
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--
Bruce Weaver
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http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/

"When all else fails, RTFM."

NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
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Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa

bdates
I can share the data and values; but I'm not sure the listserv can accommodate attachments, and I'd like to avoid long posts if I can.

Brian


Thanks for the heads up, Brian.  Are you able to share the data set and the
correct results?

Cheers,
Bruce


bdates wrote

> Hi, all.
>
> I've been checking my syntaxes for inter-rater reliability against other
> syntaxes using the same data set. For example, I've used two SAS macros,
> MAGREE.SAS and INTER_RATER.MAC. These two and mine for Fleiss kappa
> provide results for category kappa's with standard errors, significances,
> and 95% CI's. The results are the same for each macro, but vastly
> different than the SPSS Python extension, which presents the same standard
> error for each category kappa. I've checked both the 1971 and 1979
> articles by Fleiss, and they confirm the fact that each category standard
> error is based on data from that category, which of course would make each
> standard error different in most cases. Just a heads up if you're using
> the category kappa's from the Python extension. The programming needs
> revision.
>
> Brian
> =====================
> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to

> LISTSERV@.UGA

>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
> command. To leave the list, send the command
> SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
> For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
> INFO REFCARD





-----
--
Bruce Weaver
[hidden email]
http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/

"When all else fails, RTFM."

NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.

--
Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/

=====================
To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to
[hidden email] (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
command. To leave the list, send the command
SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
INFO REFCARD

=====================
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Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa

Jon Peck
I will post some comments from the author of this extension when I have access to my computer.  May be a few days.

On Sat, Oct 7, 2017 at 2:18 PM Dates, Brian <[hidden email]> wrote:
I can share the data and values; but I'm not sure the listserv can accommodate attachments, and I'd like to avoid long posts if I can.

Brian


Thanks for the heads up, Brian.  Are you able to share the data set and the
correct results?

Cheers,
Bruce


bdates wrote
> Hi, all.
>
> I've been checking my syntaxes for inter-rater reliability against other
> syntaxes using the same data set. For example, I've used two SAS macros,
> MAGREE.SAS and INTER_RATER.MAC. These two and mine for Fleiss kappa
> provide results for category kappa's with standard errors, significances,
> and 95% CI's. The results are the same for each macro, but vastly
> different than the SPSS Python extension, which presents the same standard
> error for each category kappa. I've checked both the 1971 and 1979
> articles by Fleiss, and they confirm the fact that each category standard
> error is based on data from that category, which of course would make each
> standard error different in most cases. Just a heads up if you're using
> the category kappa's from the Python extension. The programming needs
> revision.
>
> Brian
> =====================
> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to

> LISTSERV@.UGA

>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
> command. To leave the list, send the command
> SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
> For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
> INFO REFCARD





-----
--
Bruce Weaver
[hidden email]
http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/

"When all else fails, RTFM."

NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.

--
Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/

=====================
To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to
[hidden email] (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
command. To leave the list, send the command
SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
INFO REFCARD

=====================
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[hidden email] (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
command. To leave the list, send the command
SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
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--
Jon K Peck
[hidden email]

===================== To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to [hidden email] (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the command. To leave the list, send the command SIGNOFF SPSSX-L For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command INFO REFCARD
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Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa

bdates
Thanks, Jon.

Brian

From: Jon Peck [[hidden email]]
Sent: Saturday, October 07, 2017 5:33 PM
To: Dates, Brian; [hidden email]
Subject: Re: [SPSSX-L] SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa

I will post some comments from the author of this extension when I have access to my computer.  May be a few days.

On Sat, Oct 7, 2017 at 2:18 PM Dates, Brian <[hidden email]> wrote:
I can share the data and values; but I'm not sure the listserv can accommodate attachments, and I'd like to avoid long posts if I can.

Brian


Thanks for the heads up, Brian.  Are you able to share the data set and the
correct results?

Cheers,
Bruce


bdates wrote
> Hi, all.
>
> I've been checking my syntaxes for inter-rater reliability against other
> syntaxes using the same data set. For example, I've used two SAS macros,
> MAGREE.SAS and INTER_RATER.MAC. These two and mine for Fleiss kappa
> provide results for category kappa's with standard errors, significances,
> and 95% CI's. The results are the same for each macro, but vastly
> different than the SPSS Python extension, which presents the same standard
> error for each category kappa. I've checked both the 1971 and 1979
> articles by Fleiss, and they confirm the fact that each category standard
> error is based on data from that category, which of course would make each
> standard error different in most cases. Just a heads up if you're using
> the category kappa's from the Python extension. The programming needs
> revision.
>
> Brian
> =====================
> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to

> LISTSERV@.UGA

>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
> command. To leave the list, send the command
> SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
> For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
> INFO REFCARD





-----
--
Bruce Weaver
[hidden email]
http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/

"When all else fails, RTFM."

NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.

--
Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/

=====================
To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to
[hidden email] (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
command. To leave the list, send the command
SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
INFO REFCARD

=====================
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[hidden email] (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
command. To leave the list, send the command
SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
INFO REFCARD
--
Jon K Peck
[hidden email]

===================== To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to [hidden email] (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the command. To leave the list, send the command SIGNOFF SPSSX-L For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command INFO REFCARD
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Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa

Bruce Weaver
Administrator
In reply to this post by bdates
If you reply via the Nabble archive
(http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/), you can upload a file.  It
will not be distributed to the listserve mailing list.  Anyone who wants it
will have to visit the Nabble archive.  

Cheers,
Bruce


bdates wrote

> I can share the data and values; but I'm not sure the listserv can
> accommodate attachments, and I'd like to avoid long posts if I can.
>
> Brian
>
>
> Thanks for the heads up, Brian.  Are you able to share the data set and
> the
> correct results?
>
> Cheers,
> Bruce
>
>
> bdates wrote
>> Hi, all.
>>
>> I've been checking my syntaxes for inter-rater reliability against other
>> syntaxes using the same data set. For example, I've used two SAS macros,
>> MAGREE.SAS and INTER_RATER.MAC. These two and mine for Fleiss kappa
>> provide results for category kappa's with standard errors, significances,
>> and 95% CI's. The results are the same for each macro, but vastly
>> different than the SPSS Python extension, which presents the same
>> standard
>> error for each category kappa. I've checked both the 1971 and 1979
>> articles by Fleiss, and they confirm the fact that each category standard
>> error is based on data from that category, which of course would make
>> each
>> standard error different in most cases. Just a heads up if you're using
>> the category kappa's from the Python extension. The programming needs
>> revision.
>>
>> Brian
>> =====================
>> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to
>
>> LISTSERV@.UGA
>
>>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
>> command. To leave the list, send the command
>> SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
>> For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
>> INFO REFCARD
>
>
>
>
>
> -----
> --
> Bruce Weaver

> bweaver@

> http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/
>
> "When all else fails, RTFM."
>
> NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
> To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.
>
> --
> Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/
>
> =====================
> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to

> LISTSERV@.UGA

>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
> command. To leave the list, send the command
> SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
> For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
> INFO REFCARD
>
> =====================
> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to

> LISTSERV@.UGA

>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
> command. To leave the list, send the command
> SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
> For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
> INFO REFCARD





-----
--
Bruce Weaver
[hidden email]
http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/

"When all else fails, RTFM."

NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.

--
Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/

=====================
To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to
[hidden email] (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
command. To leave the list, send the command
SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
INFO REFCARD
--
Bruce Weaver
bweaver@lakeheadu.ca
http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/

"When all else fails, RTFM."

NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.
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Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa

bdates
In reply to this post by bdates
I'm uploading a Word document with the results of my syntax, Kilem Gwet's SAS
macro, and the SPSS Python extension, in that order. I'm also uploading an
SPSS data file with the raw data. Notice the Standard Error column in the
Python extension solution. All values are the same.

Brian Fleiss_kappa_Discrepancies.docx
<http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t47633/Fleiss_kappa_Discrepancies.docx>  
irr_test_data.sav
<http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t47633/irr_test_data.sav>  



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Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa

Bruce Weaver
Administrator
Thanks Brian.  I don't know if this will helpful to you or not, but I've
uploaded (in Nabble) a text file containing results from some analyses
carried out using kappaetc, a user-written program for Stata.
Unfortunately, kappaetc does not report a kappa for each category
separately.  But with a little programming, I was able to obtain those.  But
the way I did it yielded the same SE for every category, and it matched the
value shown by the Python extension command for SPSS.  

Below my output, I appended the help file info for kappaetc (including a
reference list), in case it is helpful to you.  

Cheers,
Bruce

Fleiss_kappa_problem.txt
<http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t7186/Fleiss_kappa_problem.txt>  


bdates wrote

> I'm uploading a Word document with the results of my syntax, Kilem Gwet's
> SAS
> macro, and the SPSS Python extension, in that order. I'm also uploading an
> SPSS data file with the raw data. Notice the Standard Error column in the
> Python extension solution. All values are the same.
>
> Brian Fleiss_kappa_Discrepancies.docx
> &lt;http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t47633/Fleiss_kappa_Discrepancies.docx&gt; 
> irr_test_data.sav
> &lt;http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t47633/irr_test_data.sav&gt; 
>
>
>
> --
> Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/
>
> =====================
> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to

> LISTSERV@.UGA

>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
> command. To leave the list, send the command
> SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
> For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
> INFO REFCARD





-----
--
Bruce Weaver
[hidden email]
http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/

"When all else fails, RTFM."

NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.

--
Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/

=====================
To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to
[hidden email] (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
command. To leave the list, send the command
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For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
INFO REFCARD
--
Bruce Weaver
bweaver@lakeheadu.ca
http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/

"When all else fails, RTFM."

NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.
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Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa

bdates
Bruce,

Thanks for this. I'm wondering what formulae they're using for category SE's. I'm going to check with other sources and get back to you. This is certainly a conundrum. We have multiple results from multiple sources. I didn't send this along, but I also used the application from RealStatistics in Excel and got the same results as my syntax and that of Gwet's SAS solution. I'm using the updated 1979 computation for the kappa's and standard errors. Maybe they're using the 1971 version.

Brian


________________________________________
From: SPSSX(r) Discussion [[hidden email]] on behalf of Bruce Weaver [[hidden email]]
Sent: Monday, October 09, 2017 2:23 PM
To: [hidden email]
Subject: Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa

Thanks Brian.  I don't know if this will helpful to you or not, but I've
uploaded (in Nabble) a text file containing results from some analyses
carried out using kappaetc, a user-written program for Stata.
Unfortunately, kappaetc does not report a kappa for each category
separately.  But with a little programming, I was able to obtain those.  But
the way I did it yielded the same SE for every category, and it matched the
value shown by the Python extension command for SPSS.

Below my output, I appended the help file info for kappaetc (including a
reference list), in case it is helpful to you.

Cheers,
Bruce

Fleiss_kappa_problem.txt
<http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t7186/Fleiss_kappa_problem.txt>


bdates wrote

> I'm uploading a Word document with the results of my syntax, Kilem Gwet's
> SAS
> macro, and the SPSS Python extension, in that order. I'm also uploading an
> SPSS data file with the raw data. Notice the Standard Error column in the
> Python extension solution. All values are the same.
>
> Brian Fleiss_kappa_Discrepancies.docx
> &lt;http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t47633/Fleiss_kappa_Discrepancies.docx&gt;
> irr_test_data.sav
> &lt;http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t47633/irr_test_data.sav&gt;
>
>
>
> --
> Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/
>
> =====================
> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to

> LISTSERV@.UGA

>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
> command. To leave the list, send the command
> SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
> For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
> INFO REFCARD





-----
--
Bruce Weaver
[hidden email]
http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/

"When all else fails, RTFM."

NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.

--
Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/

=====================
To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to
[hidden email] (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
command. To leave the list, send the command
SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
INFO REFCARD

=====================
To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to
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Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa

Bruce Weaver
Administrator
Hi Brian.  The author of kappaetc can be reached via the e-mail address at
the bottom of that text file I uploaded.  You could always ask him directly
what method(s) he used.  

Cheers,
Bruce



bdates wrote

> Bruce,
>
> Thanks for this. I'm wondering what formulae they're using for category
> SE's. I'm going to check with other sources and get back to you. This is
> certainly a conundrum. We have multiple results from multiple sources. I
> didn't send this along, but I also used the application from
> RealStatistics in Excel and got the same results as my syntax and that of
> Gwet's SAS solution. I'm using the updated 1979 computation for the
> kappa's and standard errors. Maybe they're using the 1971 version.
>
> Brian
>
>
> ________________________________________
> From: SPSSX(r) Discussion [

> SPSSX-L@.UGA

> ] on behalf of Bruce Weaver [

> bruce.weaver@

> ]
> Sent: Monday, October 09, 2017 2:23 PM
> To:

> SPSSX-L@.UGA

> Subject: Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa
>
> Thanks Brian.  I don't know if this will helpful to you or not, but I've
> uploaded (in Nabble) a text file containing results from some analyses
> carried out using kappaetc, a user-written program for Stata.
> Unfortunately, kappaetc does not report a kappa for each category
> separately.  But with a little programming, I was able to obtain those.
> But
> the way I did it yielded the same SE for every category, and it matched
> the
> value shown by the Python extension command for SPSS.
>
> Below my output, I appended the help file info for kappaetc (including a
> reference list), in case it is helpful to you.
>
> Cheers,
> Bruce
>
> Fleiss_kappa_problem.txt
> &lt;http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t7186/Fleiss_kappa_problem.txt&gt;
>
>
> bdates wrote
>> I'm uploading a Word document with the results of my syntax, Kilem Gwet's
>> SAS
>> macro, and the SPSS Python extension, in that order. I'm also uploading
>> an
>> SPSS data file with the raw data. Notice the Standard Error column in the
>> Python extension solution. All values are the same.
>>
>> Brian Fleiss_kappa_Discrepancies.docx
>> &lt;http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t47633/Fleiss_kappa_Discrepancies.docx&gt;
>> irr_test_data.sav
>> &lt;http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t47633/irr_test_data.sav&gt;
>>
>>
>>
>> --
>> Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/
>>
>> =====================
>> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to
>
>> LISTSERV@.UGA
>
>>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
>> command. To leave the list, send the command
>> SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
>> For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
>> INFO REFCARD
>
>
>
>
>
> -----
> --
> Bruce Weaver

> bweaver@

> http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/
>
> "When all else fails, RTFM."
>
> NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
> To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.
>
> --
> Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/
>
> =====================
> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to

> LISTSERV@.UGA

>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
> command. To leave the list, send the command
> SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
> For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
> INFO REFCARD
>
> =====================
> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to

> LISTSERV@.UGA

>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
> command. To leave the list, send the command
> SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
> For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
> INFO REFCARD





-----
--
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Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa

bdates
Thanks, Bruce. I've sent an email to him. He mentions Gwet in his acknowledgments, so it'll be interesting what Gwet says about all of this.

Brian

________________________________________
From: SPSSX(r) Discussion [[hidden email]] on behalf of Bruce Weaver [[hidden email]]
Sent: Monday, October 09, 2017 4:45 PM
To: [hidden email]
Subject: Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa

Hi Brian.  The author of kappaetc can be reached via the e-mail address at
the bottom of that text file I uploaded.  You could always ask him directly
what method(s) he used.

Cheers,
Bruce



bdates wrote

> Bruce,
>
> Thanks for this. I'm wondering what formulae they're using for category
> SE's. I'm going to check with other sources and get back to you. This is
> certainly a conundrum. We have multiple results from multiple sources. I
> didn't send this along, but I also used the application from
> RealStatistics in Excel and got the same results as my syntax and that of
> Gwet's SAS solution. I'm using the updated 1979 computation for the
> kappa's and standard errors. Maybe they're using the 1971 version.
>
> Brian
>
>
> ________________________________________
> From: SPSSX(r) Discussion [

> SPSSX-L@.UGA

> ] on behalf of Bruce Weaver [

> bruce.weaver@

> ]
> Sent: Monday, October 09, 2017 2:23 PM
> To:

> SPSSX-L@.UGA

> Subject: Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa
>
> Thanks Brian.  I don't know if this will helpful to you or not, but I've
> uploaded (in Nabble) a text file containing results from some analyses
> carried out using kappaetc, a user-written program for Stata.
> Unfortunately, kappaetc does not report a kappa for each category
> separately.  But with a little programming, I was able to obtain those.
> But
> the way I did it yielded the same SE for every category, and it matched
> the
> value shown by the Python extension command for SPSS.
>
> Below my output, I appended the help file info for kappaetc (including a
> reference list), in case it is helpful to you.
>
> Cheers,
> Bruce
>
> Fleiss_kappa_problem.txt
> &lt;http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t7186/Fleiss_kappa_problem.txt&gt;
>
>
> bdates wrote
>> I'm uploading a Word document with the results of my syntax, Kilem Gwet's
>> SAS
>> macro, and the SPSS Python extension, in that order. I'm also uploading
>> an
>> SPSS data file with the raw data. Notice the Standard Error column in the
>> Python extension solution. All values are the same.
>>
>> Brian Fleiss_kappa_Discrepancies.docx
>> &lt;http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t47633/Fleiss_kappa_Discrepancies.docx&gt;
>> irr_test_data.sav
>> &lt;http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t47633/irr_test_data.sav&gt;
>>
>>
>>
>> --
>> Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/
>>
>> =====================
>> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to
>
>> LISTSERV@.UGA
>
>>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
>> command. To leave the list, send the command
>> SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
>> For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
>> INFO REFCARD
>
>
>
>
>
> -----
> --
> Bruce Weaver

> bweaver@

> http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/
>
> "When all else fails, RTFM."
>
> NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
> To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.
>
> --
> Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/
>
> =====================
> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to

> LISTSERV@.UGA

>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
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>
> =====================
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> command. To leave the list, send the command
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-----
--
Bruce Weaver
[hidden email]
http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/

"When all else fails, RTFM."

NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.

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=====================
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Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa

Jon Peck
The author of the Fleiss extension said...

I don't own Fleiss et al. (2003), but in that book the individual category standard errors are given that differ from the earlier formula cited by Brian Dates.  What I'm doing matches what Stata does (see, e.g., Examples 6 and 7 at https://www.stata.com/manuals13/rkappa.pdf). Here's another more recent program or script for this that also uses the same SEs: https://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/15426-fleiss-es-kappa?focused=5144134&tab=function. In the latter case you can see only one SE listed, the same for each category. In the Stata examples they don't list the SE, but you can easily see from the values of the category kappa values and the Z values that the SEs are all the same.

On Mon, Oct 9, 2017 at 3:07 PM, Dates, Brian <[hidden email]> wrote:
Thanks, Bruce. I've sent an email to him. He mentions Gwet in his acknowledgments, so it'll be interesting what Gwet says about all of this.

Brian

________________________________________
From: SPSSX(r) Discussion [[hidden email]] on behalf of Bruce Weaver [[hidden email]]
Sent: Monday, October 09, 2017 4:45 PM
To: [hidden email]
Subject: Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa

Hi Brian.  The author of kappaetc can be reached via the e-mail address at
the bottom of that text file I uploaded.  You could always ask him directly
what method(s) he used.

Cheers,
Bruce



bdates wrote
> Bruce,
>
> Thanks for this. I'm wondering what formulae they're using for category
> SE's. I'm going to check with other sources and get back to you. This is
> certainly a conundrum. We have multiple results from multiple sources. I
> didn't send this along, but I also used the application from
> RealStatistics in Excel and got the same results as my syntax and that of
> Gwet's SAS solution. I'm using the updated 1979 computation for the
> kappa's and standard errors. Maybe they're using the 1971 version.
>
> Brian
>
>
> ________________________________________
> From: SPSSX(r) Discussion [

> SPSSX-L@.UGA

> ] on behalf of Bruce Weaver [

> bruce.weaver@

> ]
> Sent: Monday, October 09, 2017 2:23 PM
> To:

> SPSSX-L@.UGA

> Subject: Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa
>
> Thanks Brian.  I don't know if this will helpful to you or not, but I've
> uploaded (in Nabble) a text file containing results from some analyses
> carried out using kappaetc, a user-written program for Stata.
> Unfortunately, kappaetc does not report a kappa for each category
> separately.  But with a little programming, I was able to obtain those.
> But
> the way I did it yielded the same SE for every category, and it matched
> the
> value shown by the Python extension command for SPSS.
>
> Below my output, I appended the help file info for kappaetc (including a
> reference list), in case it is helpful to you.
>
> Cheers,
> Bruce
>
> Fleiss_kappa_problem.txt
> &lt;http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t7186/Fleiss_kappa_problem.txt&gt;
>
>
> bdates wrote
>> I'm uploading a Word document with the results of my syntax, Kilem Gwet's
>> SAS
>> macro, and the SPSS Python extension, in that order. I'm also uploading
>> an
>> SPSS data file with the raw data. Notice the Standard Error column in the
>> Python extension solution. All values are the same.
>>
>> Brian Fleiss_kappa_Discrepancies.docx
>> &lt;http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t47633/Fleiss_kappa_Discrepancies.docx&gt;
>> irr_test_data.sav
>> &lt;http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t47633/irr_test_data.sav&gt;
>>
>>
>>
>> --
>> Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/
>>
>> =====================
>> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to
>
>> LISTSERV@.UGA
>
>>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
>> command. To leave the list, send the command
>> SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
>> For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
>> INFO REFCARD
>
>
>
>
>
> -----
> --
> Bruce Weaver

> bweaver@

> http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/
>
> "When all else fails, RTFM."
>
> NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
> To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.
>
> --
> Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/
>
> =====================
> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to

> LISTSERV@.UGA

>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
> command. To leave the list, send the command
> SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
> For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
> INFO REFCARD
>
> =====================
> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to

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>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
> command. To leave the list, send the command
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-----
--
Bruce Weaver
[hidden email]
http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/

"When all else fails, RTFM."

NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.

--
Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/

=====================
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[hidden email] (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
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=====================
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===================== To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to [hidden email] (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the command. To leave the list, send the command SIGNOFF SPSSX-L For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command INFO REFCARD
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Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa

bdates
Jon,

Thanks. I'll contact the appropriate folks and get back to the list.

B

________________________________________
From: Jon Peck [[hidden email]]
Sent: Monday, October 09, 2017 6:44 PM
To: Dates, Brian
Cc: SPSS List
Subject: Re: [SPSSX-L] SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa

The author of the Fleiss extension said...

I don't own Fleiss et al. (2003), but in that book the individual category standard errors are given that differ from the earlier formula cited by Brian Dates.  What I'm doing matches what Stata does (see, e.g., Examples 6 and 7 at https://www.stata.com/manuals13/rkappa.pdf). Here's another more recent program or script for this that also uses the same SEs: https://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/15426-fleiss-es-kappa?focused=5144134&tab=function. In the latter case you can see only one SE listed, the same for each category. In the Stata examples they don't list the SE, but you can easily see from the values of the category kappa values and the Z values that the SEs are all the same.

On Mon, Oct 9, 2017 at 3:07 PM, Dates, Brian <[hidden email]<mailto:[hidden email]>> wrote:
Thanks, Bruce. I've sent an email to him. He mentions Gwet in his acknowledgments, so it'll be interesting what Gwet says about all of this.

Brian

________________________________________
From: SPSSX(r) Discussion [[hidden email]<mailto:[hidden email]>] on behalf of Bruce Weaver [[hidden email]<mailto:[hidden email]>]
Sent: Monday, October 09, 2017 4:45 PM
To: [hidden email]<mailto:[hidden email]>
Subject: Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa

Hi Brian.  The author of kappaetc can be reached via the e-mail address at
the bottom of that text file I uploaded.  You could always ask him directly
what method(s) he used.

Cheers,
Bruce



bdates wrote

> Bruce,
>
> Thanks for this. I'm wondering what formulae they're using for category
> SE's. I'm going to check with other sources and get back to you. This is
> certainly a conundrum. We have multiple results from multiple sources. I
> didn't send this along, but I also used the application from
> RealStatistics in Excel and got the same results as my syntax and that of
> Gwet's SAS solution. I'm using the updated 1979 computation for the
> kappa's and standard errors. Maybe they're using the 1971 version.
>
> Brian
>
>
> ________________________________________
> From: SPSSX(r) Discussion [

> SPSSX-L@.UGA

> ] on behalf of Bruce Weaver [

> bruce.weaver@

> ]
> Sent: Monday, October 09, 2017 2:23 PM
> To:

> SPSSX-L@.UGA

> Subject: Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa
>
> Thanks Brian.  I don't know if this will helpful to you or not, but I've
> uploaded (in Nabble) a text file containing results from some analyses
> carried out using kappaetc, a user-written program for Stata.
> Unfortunately, kappaetc does not report a kappa for each category
> separately.  But with a little programming, I was able to obtain those.
> But
> the way I did it yielded the same SE for every category, and it matched
> the
> value shown by the Python extension command for SPSS.
>
> Below my output, I appended the help file info for kappaetc (including a
> reference list), in case it is helpful to you.
>
> Cheers,
> Bruce
>
> Fleiss_kappa_problem.txt
> &lt;http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t7186/Fleiss_kappa_problem.txt&gt;
>
>
> bdates wrote
>> I'm uploading a Word document with the results of my syntax, Kilem Gwet's
>> SAS
>> macro, and the SPSS Python extension, in that order. I'm also uploading
>> an
>> SPSS data file with the raw data. Notice the Standard Error column in the
>> Python extension solution. All values are the same.
>>
>> Brian Fleiss_kappa_Discrepancies.docx
>> &lt;http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t47633/Fleiss_kappa_Discrepancies.docx&gt;
>> irr_test_data.sav
>> &lt;http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t47633/irr_test_data.sav&gt;
>>
>>
>>
>> --
>> Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/
>>
>> =====================
>> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to
>
>> LISTSERV@.UGA
>
>>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
>> command. To leave the list, send the command
>> SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
>> For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
>> INFO REFCARD
>
>
>
>
>
> -----
> --
> Bruce Weaver

> bweaver@

> http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/
>
> "When all else fails, RTFM."
>
> NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
> To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.
>
> --
> Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/
>
> =====================
> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to

> LISTSERV@.UGA

>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
> command. To leave the list, send the command
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>
> =====================
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-----
--
Bruce Weaver
[hidden email]<mailto:[hidden email]>
http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/

"When all else fails, RTFM."

NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.

--
Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/

=====================
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[hidden email]<mailto:[hidden email]>

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Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa

Bruce Weaver
Administrator
In reply to this post by bdates
Hi Brian.  I also sent Daniel Klein an e-mail alerting him to this thread.
He does not use SPSS, and is probably not going to join this list himself.
But he did ask me to post the following comments he sent me.  

Cheers,
Bruce
-------------------------------------

First, note that Gwet (2008, 2014) uses an approach to statistical inference
that is quite different from anything that has been proposed so far in the
area of inter-rater agreement. He calls what is usually done the
"model-based" approach. Here, a hypothetical distribution of the kappa
coefficient under H0 is used to derive test statistics for testing against
0. Such approaches are not necessarily valid for confidence interval
construction (also see  Reichenheim 2004). So I suppose there might be a
reason why StataCorp decided not to return a standard error and confidence
interval in their -kap- coammand. What
Gwet (2008, 2014) suggest instead is a "design-based" approach that is based
on finite sample theory and that is implemented in -kappaetc-. This explains
the difference between the standard error that Brian obtains for combined
kappa (0.05770; which is what you confirm using the -kap- command) and the
SE reported by Gwet's SAS macro (0.08132) and -kappaetc- (0.08223). To say
more about the (small) difference between the latter two, I would need to
know which macro was used to produce the results. Brian states that he used
INTER_RATER.MAC but does neither state the software version nor where it is
from.

[BW:  I believe the loop Daniel mentions in the next paragraph is referring
to the Stata output I uploaded here:
http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t7186/Fleiss_kappa_problem.txt.]

When you program the loop to get kappa for each category, note that
-kappaetc- does not(!) report the same standard error every time. It differs
for each category. It is the SE you obtain from -kap- that is constant
across categories. As I have said, I do not know whether this SE is
trustworthy for confidence interval construction but it seems the Python
extension uses the very same approach. Note that it is documented in [R]
kappa. However, the SEs reported by -kappaetc- do not match Brian's or those
from the SAS macro. I have no explanation for that. All I can tell you is
that -kappaetc- does nothing special here, i.e., it retains Gwet's
"design-based" approach. It seems the SAS macro and Brian have implemented
another formula to get the SE for
each category, separately (and perhaps there is a reason for this). It seems
a bit odd to me that the SEs are so much higher than the combined one, given
that they are all based on the same number of subjects. Also, I find it
somehow counterintuitive to clearly rejecting the null in the combined
coefficient when only one of the category-wise coefficients is statistically
significant different from zero.

I notice that the help file for -kappaetc- might be misleading or incomplete
concerning differences to Stata's -kap- and -kappa-. Here is the already
revised paragraph that will be included in an updated version of -kappaetc-
(hopefuly towards the end of the year).

--- Start of excerpt from help for kappaetc ----

Relation to official Stata's kap and kappa commands

The percent agreement that is reported by kappaetc is the same as the
observed agreement returned by Stata's kap command. The latter, however,
does not provide a standard error or confidence intervals for the
coefficient.

For two unique raters and no missing ratings both, Stata's kap and the
kappaetc command, estimate the same Cohen's kappa coefficient. The standard
error and p-value will differ between the two results, though. Stata's kap
command implements a model-based (theoretical) approximate formula for the
standard error and reports a one-sided test using the standard normal
distribution.  kappaetc implements a design-based formula to obtain the
standard error and reports a two-sided t test with n-1 degrees of freedom.
kappaetc will, additionally, provide a confidence interval.

For more than two (nonunique) raters and no missing ratings (i.e. a constant
number of raters) both, Stata's kap (or kappa) command and kappaetc
(possibly with the frequency option) estimate the same Fleiss' kappa
coefficient. kappaetc will, however, not report a kappa value for each
rating category. Standard errors and p-values will differ between the
commands for the same reasons explained in the two unique raters case above.

--- End of excerpt from help for kappaetc ----

A last minor comment on category 4 not being used by either rater. In such a
case it is useful to specify all possible rating categories with the
-categories()- option of -kappaetc-. Failing to do so results in wrong
estimates for Gwet's AC and the Brennan and Prediger coefficient, both of
which depend on the number of rating categories. Note that weighted kappa
might also be off.

Best
Daniel


Gwet, K. L. (2014). Handbook of Inter-Rater Reliability. Gaithersburg,
MD: Advanced Analytics, LLC.

Gwet, K. L. (2008). Computing inter-rater reliability and its variance
in the presence of high agreement. British Journal of Mathematical and
Statistical Psycholgy, 61, 29-48.

Reichenheim, M. E. (2004). Confidence intervals for the kappa
statistic. The Stata Journal, 4, 421-428.



bdates wrote
> Thanks, Bruce. I've sent an email to him. He mentions Gwet in his
> acknowledgments, so it'll be interesting what Gwet says about all of this.
>
> Brian
>
> ________________________________________
> From: SPSSX(r) Discussion [

> SPSSX-L@.UGA

> ] on behalf of Bruce Weaver [

> bruce.weaver@

> ]
> Sent: Monday, October 09, 2017 4:45 PM
> To:

> SPSSX-L@.UGA

> Subject: Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa
>
> Hi Brian.  The author of kappaetc can be reached via the e-mail address at
> the bottom of that text file I uploaded.  You could always ask him
> directly
> what method(s) he used.
>
> Cheers,
> Bruce
>
>
>
> bdates wrote
>> Bruce,
>>
>> Thanks for this. I'm wondering what formulae they're using for category
>> SE's. I'm going to check with other sources and get back to you. This is
>> certainly a conundrum. We have multiple results from multiple sources. I
>> didn't send this along, but I also used the application from
>> RealStatistics in Excel and got the same results as my syntax and that of
>> Gwet's SAS solution. I'm using the updated 1979 computation for the
>> kappa's and standard errors. Maybe they're using the 1971 version.
>>
>> Brian
>>
>>
>> ________________________________________
>> From: SPSSX(r) Discussion [
>
>> SPSSX-L@.UGA
>
>> ] on behalf of Bruce Weaver [
>
>> bruce.weaver@
>
>> ]
>> Sent: Monday, October 09, 2017 2:23 PM
>> To:
>
>> SPSSX-L@.UGA
>
>> Subject: Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa
>>
>> Thanks Brian.  I don't know if this will helpful to you or not, but I've
>> uploaded (in Nabble) a text file containing results from some analyses
>> carried out using kappaetc, a user-written program for Stata.
>> Unfortunately, kappaetc does not report a kappa for each category
>> separately.  But with a little programming, I was able to obtain those.
>> But
>> the way I did it yielded the same SE for every category, and it matched
>> the
>> value shown by the Python extension command for SPSS.
>>
>> Below my output, I appended the help file info for kappaetc (including a
>> reference list), in case it is helpful to you.
>>
>> Cheers,
>> Bruce
>>
>> Fleiss_kappa_problem.txt
>> &lt;http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t7186/Fleiss_kappa_problem.txt&gt;
>>
>>
>> bdates wrote
>>> I'm uploading a Word document with the results of my syntax, Kilem
>>> Gwet's
>>> SAS
>>> macro, and the SPSS Python extension, in that order. I'm also uploading
>>> an
>>> SPSS data file with the raw data. Notice the Standard Error column in
>>> the
>>> Python extension solution. All values are the same.
>>>
>>> Brian Fleiss_kappa_Discrepancies.docx
>>> &lt;http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t47633/Fleiss_kappa_Discrepancies.docx&gt;
>>> irr_test_data.sav
>>> &lt;http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t47633/irr_test_data.sav&gt;
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>> --
>>> Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/
>>>
>>> =====================
>>> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to
>>
>>> LISTSERV@.UGA
>>
>>>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
>>> command. To leave the list, send the command
>>> SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
>>> For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
>>> INFO REFCARD
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>> -----
>> --
>> Bruce Weaver
>
>> bweaver@
>
>> http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/
>>
>> "When all else fails, RTFM."
>>
>> NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
>> To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.
>>
>> --
>> Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/
>>
>> =====================
>> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to
>
>> LISTSERV@.UGA
>
>>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
>> command. To leave the list, send the command
>> SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
>> For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
>> INFO REFCARD
>>
>> =====================
>> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to
>
>> LISTSERV@.UGA
>
>>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
>> command. To leave the list, send the command
>> SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
>> For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
>> INFO REFCARD
>
>
>
>
>
> -----
> --
> Bruce Weaver

> bweaver@

> http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/
>
> "When all else fails, RTFM."
>
> NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
> To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.
>
> --
> Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/
>
> =====================
> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to

> LISTSERV@.UGA

>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
> command. To leave the list, send the command
> SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
> For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
> INFO REFCARD
>
> =====================
> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to

> LISTSERV@.UGA

>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
> command. To leave the list, send the command
> SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
> For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
> INFO REFCARD





-----
--
Bruce Weaver
[hidden email]
http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/

"When all else fails, RTFM."

NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.

--
Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/

=====================
To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to
[hidden email] (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
command. To leave the list, send the command
SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
INFO REFCARD
--
Bruce Weaver
bweaver@lakeheadu.ca
http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/

"When all else fails, RTFM."

NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.
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Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa

bdates
Thank-you, Bruce, and please thank Daniel Klein as well. First, let me clarify. The overall kappa's, standard errors, etc. produced from each solution are the same. The category kappa's produced from each solution are also the same. What differs is the standard errors. My syntax and the SAS syntax written by Gwet (INTER_RATER.MAC) produce the same standard errors which are different from those produced by the SPSS or Stata solutions. Fleiss, Nee, and Landis (1979) updated the formula for the standard error for the overall kappa. It seems that all the solutions have adopted that. There was also an update to the category standard error, which produces one standard error for all categories rather than a separate error for each category. The SPSS Python and Stata solutions have incorporated this. I need to update my syntax, but also contact the authors of other syntax about this issue.

Again, thank-you vary much for your facilitation in this situation. It has truly made things go much quicker than otherwise.

Brian

________________________________________
From: SPSSX(r) Discussion [[hidden email]] on behalf of Bruce Weaver [[hidden email]]
Sent: Tuesday, October 10, 2017 3:02 PM
To: [hidden email]
Subject: Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa

Hi Brian.  I also sent Daniel Klein an e-mail alerting him to this thread.
He does not use SPSS, and is probably not going to join this list himself.
But he did ask me to post the following comments he sent me.

Cheers,
Bruce
-------------------------------------

First, note that Gwet (2008, 2014) uses an approach to statistical inference
that is quite different from anything that has been proposed so far in the
area of inter-rater agreement. He calls what is usually done the
"model-based" approach. Here, a hypothetical distribution of the kappa
coefficient under H0 is used to derive test statistics for testing against
0. Such approaches are not necessarily valid for confidence interval
construction (also see  Reichenheim 2004). So I suppose there might be a
reason why StataCorp decided not to return a standard error and confidence
interval in their -kap- coammand. What
Gwet (2008, 2014) suggest instead is a "design-based" approach that is based
on finite sample theory and that is implemented in -kappaetc-. This explains
the difference between the standard error that Brian obtains for combined
kappa (0.05770; which is what you confirm using the -kap- command) and the
SE reported by Gwet's SAS macro (0.08132) and -kappaetc- (0.08223). To say
more about the (small) difference between the latter two, I would need to
know which macro was used to produce the results. Brian states that he used
INTER_RATER.MAC but does neither state the software version nor where it is
from.

[BW:  I believe the loop Daniel mentions in the next paragraph is referring
to the Stata output I uploaded here:
http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t7186/Fleiss_kappa_problem.txt.]

When you program the loop to get kappa for each category, note that
-kappaetc- does not(!) report the same standard error every time. It differs
for each category. It is the SE you obtain from -kap- that is constant
across categories. As I have said, I do not know whether this SE is
trustworthy for confidence interval construction but it seems the Python
extension uses the very same approach. Note that it is documented in [R]
kappa. However, the SEs reported by -kappaetc- do not match Brian's or those
from the SAS macro. I have no explanation for that. All I can tell you is
that -kappaetc- does nothing special here, i.e., it retains Gwet's
"design-based" approach. It seems the SAS macro and Brian have implemented
another formula to get the SE for
each category, separately (and perhaps there is a reason for this). It seems
a bit odd to me that the SEs are so much higher than the combined one, given
that they are all based on the same number of subjects. Also, I find it
somehow counterintuitive to clearly rejecting the null in the combined
coefficient when only one of the category-wise coefficients is statistically
significant different from zero.

I notice that the help file for -kappaetc- might be misleading or incomplete
concerning differences to Stata's -kap- and -kappa-. Here is the already
revised paragraph that will be included in an updated version of -kappaetc-
(hopefuly towards the end of the year).

--- Start of excerpt from help for kappaetc ----

Relation to official Stata's kap and kappa commands

The percent agreement that is reported by kappaetc is the same as the
observed agreement returned by Stata's kap command. The latter, however,
does not provide a standard error or confidence intervals for the
coefficient.

For two unique raters and no missing ratings both, Stata's kap and the
kappaetc command, estimate the same Cohen's kappa coefficient. The standard
error and p-value will differ between the two results, though. Stata's kap
command implements a model-based (theoretical) approximate formula for the
standard error and reports a one-sided test using the standard normal
distribution.  kappaetc implements a design-based formula to obtain the
standard error and reports a two-sided t test with n-1 degrees of freedom.
kappaetc will, additionally, provide a confidence interval.

For more than two (nonunique) raters and no missing ratings (i.e. a constant
number of raters) both, Stata's kap (or kappa) command and kappaetc
(possibly with the frequency option) estimate the same Fleiss' kappa
coefficient. kappaetc will, however, not report a kappa value for each
rating category. Standard errors and p-values will differ between the
commands for the same reasons explained in the two unique raters case above.

--- End of excerpt from help for kappaetc ----

A last minor comment on category 4 not being used by either rater. In such a
case it is useful to specify all possible rating categories with the
-categories()- option of -kappaetc-. Failing to do so results in wrong
estimates for Gwet's AC and the Brennan and Prediger coefficient, both of
which depend on the number of rating categories. Note that weighted kappa
might also be off.

Best
Daniel


Gwet, K. L. (2014). Handbook of Inter-Rater Reliability. Gaithersburg,
MD: Advanced Analytics, LLC.

Gwet, K. L. (2008). Computing inter-rater reliability and its variance
in the presence of high agreement. British Journal of Mathematical and
Statistical Psycholgy, 61, 29-48.

Reichenheim, M. E. (2004). Confidence intervals for the kappa
statistic. The Stata Journal, 4, 421-428.



bdates wrote
> Thanks, Bruce. I've sent an email to him. He mentions Gwet in his
> acknowledgments, so it'll be interesting what Gwet says about all of this.
>
> Brian
>
> ________________________________________
> From: SPSSX(r) Discussion [

> SPSSX-L@.UGA

> ] on behalf of Bruce Weaver [

> bruce.weaver@

> ]
> Sent: Monday, October 09, 2017 4:45 PM
> To:

> SPSSX-L@.UGA

> Subject: Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa
>
> Hi Brian.  The author of kappaetc can be reached via the e-mail address at
> the bottom of that text file I uploaded.  You could always ask him
> directly
> what method(s) he used.
>
> Cheers,
> Bruce
>
>
>
> bdates wrote
>> Bruce,
>>
>> Thanks for this. I'm wondering what formulae they're using for category
>> SE's. I'm going to check with other sources and get back to you. This is
>> certainly a conundrum. We have multiple results from multiple sources. I
>> didn't send this along, but I also used the application from
>> RealStatistics in Excel and got the same results as my syntax and that of
>> Gwet's SAS solution. I'm using the updated 1979 computation for the
>> kappa's and standard errors. Maybe they're using the 1971 version.
>>
>> Brian
>>
>>
>> ________________________________________
>> From: SPSSX(r) Discussion [
>
>> SPSSX-L@.UGA
>
>> ] on behalf of Bruce Weaver [
>
>> bruce.weaver@
>
>> ]
>> Sent: Monday, October 09, 2017 2:23 PM
>> To:
>
>> SPSSX-L@.UGA
>
>> Subject: Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa
>>
>> Thanks Brian.  I don't know if this will helpful to you or not, but I've
>> uploaded (in Nabble) a text file containing results from some analyses
>> carried out using kappaetc, a user-written program for Stata.
>> Unfortunately, kappaetc does not report a kappa for each category
>> separately.  But with a little programming, I was able to obtain those.
>> But
>> the way I did it yielded the same SE for every category, and it matched
>> the
>> value shown by the Python extension command for SPSS.
>>
>> Below my output, I appended the help file info for kappaetc (including a
>> reference list), in case it is helpful to you.
>>
>> Cheers,
>> Bruce
>>
>> Fleiss_kappa_problem.txt
>> &lt;http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t7186/Fleiss_kappa_problem.txt&gt;
>>
>>
>> bdates wrote
>>> I'm uploading a Word document with the results of my syntax, Kilem
>>> Gwet's
>>> SAS
>>> macro, and the SPSS Python extension, in that order. I'm also uploading
>>> an
>>> SPSS data file with the raw data. Notice the Standard Error column in
>>> the
>>> Python extension solution. All values are the same.
>>>
>>> Brian Fleiss_kappa_Discrepancies.docx
>>> &lt;http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t47633/Fleiss_kappa_Discrepancies.docx&gt;
>>> irr_test_data.sav
>>> &lt;http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t47633/irr_test_data.sav&gt;
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>> --
>>> Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/
>>>
>>> =====================
>>> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to
>>
>>> LISTSERV@.UGA
>>
>>>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
>>> command. To leave the list, send the command
>>> SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
>>> For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
>>> INFO REFCARD
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>> -----
>> --
>> Bruce Weaver
>
>> bweaver@
>
>> http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/
>>
>> "When all else fails, RTFM."
>>
>> NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
>> To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.
>>
>> --
>> Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/
>>
>> =====================
>> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to
>
>> LISTSERV@.UGA
>
>>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
>> command. To leave the list, send the command
>> SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
>> For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
>> INFO REFCARD
>>
>> =====================
>> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to
>
>> LISTSERV@.UGA
>
>>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
>> command. To leave the list, send the command
>> SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
>> For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
>> INFO REFCARD
>
>
>
>
>
> -----
> --
> Bruce Weaver

> bweaver@

> http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/
>
> "When all else fails, RTFM."
>
> NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
> To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.
>
> --
> Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/
>
> =====================
> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to

> LISTSERV@.UGA

>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
> command. To leave the list, send the command
> SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
> For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
> INFO REFCARD
>
> =====================
> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to

> LISTSERV@.UGA

>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
> command. To leave the list, send the command
> SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
> For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
> INFO REFCARD





-----
--
Bruce Weaver
[hidden email]
http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/

"When all else fails, RTFM."

NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.

--
Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/

=====================
To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to
[hidden email] (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
command. To leave the list, send the command
SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
INFO REFCARD

=====================
To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to
[hidden email] (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
command. To leave the list, send the command
SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
INFO REFCARD
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Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa

Jon Peck
For the SPSS extension...

From the 2003 text, the formula for the standard error for each category used in the extension is formula 18.53 on page 616. This is based on:

Fleiss, J. L., J. C. M. Nee, and J. R. Landis. (1979). Large sample variance of kappa in the case of different sets of raters. Psychological Bulletin 86: 974–977.

On Tue, Oct 10, 2017 at 1:52 PM Dates, Brian <[hidden email]> wrote:
Thank-you, Bruce, and please thank Daniel Klein as well. First, let me clarify. The overall kappa's, standard errors, etc. produced from each solution are the same. The category kappa's produced from each solution are also the same. What differs is the standard errors. My syntax and the SAS syntax written by Gwet (INTER_RATER.MAC) produce the same standard errors which are different from those produced by the SPSS or Stata solutions. Fleiss, Nee, and Landis (1979) updated the formula for the standard error for the overall kappa. It seems that all the solutions have adopted that. There was also an update to the category standard error, which produces one standard error for all categories rather than a separate error for each category. The SPSS Python and Stata solutions have incorporated this. I need to update my syntax, but also contact the authors of other syntax about this issue.

Again, thank-you vary much for your facilitation in this situation. It has truly made things go much quicker than otherwise.

Brian

________________________________________
From: SPSSX(r) Discussion [[hidden email]] on behalf of Bruce Weaver [[hidden email]]
Sent: Tuesday, October 10, 2017 3:02 PM
To: [hidden email]
Subject: Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa

Hi Brian.  I also sent Daniel Klein an e-mail alerting him to this thread.
He does not use SPSS, and is probably not going to join this list himself.
But he did ask me to post the following comments he sent me.

Cheers,
Bruce
-------------------------------------

First, note that Gwet (2008, 2014) uses an approach to statistical inference
that is quite different from anything that has been proposed so far in the
area of inter-rater agreement. He calls what is usually done the
"model-based" approach. Here, a hypothetical distribution of the kappa
coefficient under H0 is used to derive test statistics for testing against
0. Such approaches are not necessarily valid for confidence interval
construction (also see  Reichenheim 2004). So I suppose there might be a
reason why StataCorp decided not to return a standard error and confidence
interval in their -kap- coammand. What
Gwet (2008, 2014) suggest instead is a "design-based" approach that is based
on finite sample theory and that is implemented in -kappaetc-. This explains
the difference between the standard error that Brian obtains for combined
kappa (0.05770; which is what you confirm using the -kap- command) and the
SE reported by Gwet's SAS macro (0.08132) and -kappaetc- (0.08223). To say
more about the (small) difference between the latter two, I would need to
know which macro was used to produce the results. Brian states that he used
INTER_RATER.MAC but does neither state the software version nor where it is
from.

[BW:  I believe the loop Daniel mentions in the next paragraph is referring
to the Stata output I uploaded here:
http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t7186/Fleiss_kappa_problem.txt.]

When you program the loop to get kappa for each category, note that
-kappaetc- does not(!) report the same standard error every time. It differs
for each category. It is the SE you obtain from -kap- that is constant
across categories. As I have said, I do not know whether this SE is
trustworthy for confidence interval construction but it seems the Python
extension uses the very same approach. Note that it is documented in [R]
kappa. However, the SEs reported by -kappaetc- do not match Brian's or those
from the SAS macro. I have no explanation for that. All I can tell you is
that -kappaetc- does nothing special here, i.e., it retains Gwet's
"design-based" approach. It seems the SAS macro and Brian have implemented
another formula to get the SE for
each category, separately (and perhaps there is a reason for this). It seems
a bit odd to me that the SEs are so much higher than the combined one, given
that they are all based on the same number of subjects. Also, I find it
somehow counterintuitive to clearly rejecting the null in the combined
coefficient when only one of the category-wise coefficients is statistically
significant different from zero.

I notice that the help file for -kappaetc- might be misleading or incomplete
concerning differences to Stata's -kap- and -kappa-. Here is the already
revised paragraph that will be included in an updated version of -kappaetc-
(hopefuly towards the end of the year).

--- Start of excerpt from help for kappaetc ----

Relation to official Stata's kap and kappa commands

The percent agreement that is reported by kappaetc is the same as the
observed agreement returned by Stata's kap command. The latter, however,
does not provide a standard error or confidence intervals for the
coefficient.

For two unique raters and no missing ratings both, Stata's kap and the
kappaetc command, estimate the same Cohen's kappa coefficient. The standard
error and p-value will differ between the two results, though. Stata's kap
command implements a model-based (theoretical) approximate formula for the
standard error and reports a one-sided test using the standard normal
distribution.  kappaetc implements a design-based formula to obtain the
standard error and reports a two-sided t test with n-1 degrees of freedom.
kappaetc will, additionally, provide a confidence interval.

For more than two (nonunique) raters and no missing ratings (i.e. a constant
number of raters) both, Stata's kap (or kappa) command and kappaetc
(possibly with the frequency option) estimate the same Fleiss' kappa
coefficient. kappaetc will, however, not report a kappa value for each
rating category. Standard errors and p-values will differ between the
commands for the same reasons explained in the two unique raters case above.

--- End of excerpt from help for kappaetc ----

A last minor comment on category 4 not being used by either rater. In such a
case it is useful to specify all possible rating categories with the
-categories()- option of -kappaetc-. Failing to do so results in wrong
estimates for Gwet's AC and the Brennan and Prediger coefficient, both of
which depend on the number of rating categories. Note that weighted kappa
might also be off.

Best
Daniel


Gwet, K. L. (2014). Handbook of Inter-Rater Reliability. Gaithersburg,
MD: Advanced Analytics, LLC.

Gwet, K. L. (2008). Computing inter-rater reliability and its variance
in the presence of high agreement. British Journal of Mathematical and
Statistical Psycholgy, 61, 29-48.

Reichenheim, M. E. (2004). Confidence intervals for the kappa
statistic. The Stata Journal, 4, 421-428.



bdates wrote
> Thanks, Bruce. I've sent an email to him. He mentions Gwet in his
> acknowledgments, so it'll be interesting what Gwet says about all of this.
>
> Brian
>
> ________________________________________
> From: SPSSX(r) Discussion [

> SPSSX-L@.UGA

> ] on behalf of Bruce Weaver [

> bruce.weaver@

> ]
> Sent: Monday, October 09, 2017 4:45 PM
> To:

> SPSSX-L@.UGA

> Subject: Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa
>
> Hi Brian.  The author of kappaetc can be reached via the e-mail address at
> the bottom of that text file I uploaded.  You could always ask him
> directly
> what method(s) he used.
>
> Cheers,
> Bruce
>
>
>
> bdates wrote
>> Bruce,
>>
>> Thanks for this. I'm wondering what formulae they're using for category
>> SE's. I'm going to check with other sources and get back to you. This is
>> certainly a conundrum. We have multiple results from multiple sources. I
>> didn't send this along, but I also used the application from
>> RealStatistics in Excel and got the same results as my syntax and that of
>> Gwet's SAS solution. I'm using the updated 1979 computation for the
>> kappa's and standard errors. Maybe they're using the 1971 version.
>>
>> Brian
>>
>>
>> ________________________________________
>> From: SPSSX(r) Discussion [
>
>> SPSSX-L@.UGA
>
>> ] on behalf of Bruce Weaver [
>
>> bruce.weaver@
>
>> ]
>> Sent: Monday, October 09, 2017 2:23 PM
>> To:
>
>> SPSSX-L@.UGA
>
>> Subject: Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa
>>
>> Thanks Brian.  I don't know if this will helpful to you or not, but I've
>> uploaded (in Nabble) a text file containing results from some analyses
>> carried out using kappaetc, a user-written program for Stata.
>> Unfortunately, kappaetc does not report a kappa for each category
>> separately.  But with a little programming, I was able to obtain those.
>> But
>> the way I did it yielded the same SE for every category, and it matched
>> the
>> value shown by the Python extension command for SPSS.
>>
>> Below my output, I appended the help file info for kappaetc (including a
>> reference list), in case it is helpful to you.
>>
>> Cheers,
>> Bruce
>>
>> Fleiss_kappa_problem.txt
>> &lt;http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t7186/Fleiss_kappa_problem.txt&gt;
>>
>>
>> bdates wrote
>>> I'm uploading a Word document with the results of my syntax, Kilem
>>> Gwet's
>>> SAS
>>> macro, and the SPSS Python extension, in that order. I'm also uploading
>>> an
>>> SPSS data file with the raw data. Notice the Standard Error column in
>>> the
>>> Python extension solution. All values are the same.
>>>
>>> Brian Fleiss_kappa_Discrepancies.docx
>>> &lt;http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t47633/Fleiss_kappa_Discrepancies.docx&gt;
>>> irr_test_data.sav
>>> &lt;http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t47633/irr_test_data.sav&gt;
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>> --
>>> Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/
>>>
>>> =====================
>>> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to
>>
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>>
>>
>>
>> -----
>> --
>> Bruce Weaver
>
>> bweaver@
>
>> http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/
>>
>> "When all else fails, RTFM."
>>
>> NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
>> To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.
>>
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>
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> bweaver@

> http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/
>
> "When all else fails, RTFM."
>
> NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
> To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.
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-----
--
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[hidden email]
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"When all else fails, RTFM."

NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.

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Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/

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Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa

bdates
Thanks, Jon. I have all those works. I'm in the process of making changes in my syntax and have alerted Kilem Gwet to check his syntax for Fleiss' kappa to make sure the also has those updates.

Take care.

Brian
________________________________________
From: Jon Peck [[hidden email]]
Sent: Tuesday, October 10, 2017 4:28 PM
To: Dates, Brian; [hidden email]
Subject: Re: [SPSSX-L] SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa

For the SPSS extension...

From the 2003 text, the formula for the standard error for each category used in the extension is formula 18.53 on page 616. This is based on:

Fleiss, J. L., J. C. M. Nee, and J. R. Landis. (1979). Large sample variance of kappa in the case of different sets of raters. Psychological Bulletin 86: 974–977.

On Tue, Oct 10, 2017 at 1:52 PM Dates, Brian <[hidden email]<mailto:[hidden email]>> wrote:
Thank-you, Bruce, and please thank Daniel Klein as well. First, let me clarify. The overall kappa's, standard errors, etc. produced from each solution are the same. The category kappa's produced from each solution are also the same. What differs is the standard errors. My syntax and the SAS syntax written by Gwet (INTER_RATER.MAC) produce the same standard errors which are different from those produced by the SPSS or Stata solutions. Fleiss, Nee, and Landis (1979) updated the formula for the standard error for the overall kappa. It seems that all the solutions have adopted that. There was also an update to the category standard error, which produces one standard error for all categories rather than a separate error for each category. The SPSS Python and Stata solutions have incorporated this. I need to update my syntax, but also contact the authors of other syntax about this issue.

Again, thank-you vary much for your facilitation in this situation. It has truly made things go much quicker than otherwise.

Brian

________________________________________
From: SPSSX(r) Discussion [[hidden email]<mailto:[hidden email]>] on behalf of Bruce Weaver [[hidden email]<mailto:[hidden email]>]
Sent: Tuesday, October 10, 2017 3:02 PM
To: [hidden email]<mailto:[hidden email]>
Subject: Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa

Hi Brian.  I also sent Daniel Klein an e-mail alerting him to this thread.
He does not use SPSS, and is probably not going to join this list himself.
But he did ask me to post the following comments he sent me.

Cheers,
Bruce
-------------------------------------

First, note that Gwet (2008, 2014) uses an approach to statistical inference
that is quite different from anything that has been proposed so far in the
area of inter-rater agreement. He calls what is usually done the
"model-based" approach. Here, a hypothetical distribution of the kappa
coefficient under H0 is used to derive test statistics for testing against
0. Such approaches are not necessarily valid for confidence interval
construction (also see  Reichenheim 2004). So I suppose there might be a
reason why StataCorp decided not to return a standard error and confidence
interval in their -kap- coammand. What
Gwet (2008, 2014) suggest instead is a "design-based" approach that is based
on finite sample theory and that is implemented in -kappaetc-. This explains
the difference between the standard error that Brian obtains for combined
kappa (0.05770; which is what you confirm using the -kap- command) and the
SE reported by Gwet's SAS macro (0.08132) and -kappaetc- (0.08223). To say
more about the (small) difference between the latter two, I would need to
know which macro was used to produce the results. Brian states that he used
INTER_RATER.MAC but does neither state the software version nor where it is
from.

[BW:  I believe the loop Daniel mentions in the next paragraph is referring
to the Stata output I uploaded here:
http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t7186/Fleiss_kappa_problem.txt.]

When you program the loop to get kappa for each category, note that
-kappaetc- does not(!) report the same standard error every time. It differs
for each category. It is the SE you obtain from -kap- that is constant
across categories. As I have said, I do not know whether this SE is
trustworthy for confidence interval construction but it seems the Python
extension uses the very same approach. Note that it is documented in [R]
kappa. However, the SEs reported by -kappaetc- do not match Brian's or those
from the SAS macro. I have no explanation for that. All I can tell you is
that -kappaetc- does nothing special here, i.e., it retains Gwet's
"design-based" approach. It seems the SAS macro and Brian have implemented
another formula to get the SE for
each category, separately (and perhaps there is a reason for this). It seems
a bit odd to me that the SEs are so much higher than the combined one, given
that they are all based on the same number of subjects. Also, I find it
somehow counterintuitive to clearly rejecting the null in the combined
coefficient when only one of the category-wise coefficients is statistically
significant different from zero.

I notice that the help file for -kappaetc- might be misleading or incomplete
concerning differences to Stata's -kap- and -kappa-. Here is the already
revised paragraph that will be included in an updated version of -kappaetc-
(hopefuly towards the end of the year).

--- Start of excerpt from help for kappaetc ----

Relation to official Stata's kap and kappa commands

The percent agreement that is reported by kappaetc is the same as the
observed agreement returned by Stata's kap command. The latter, however,
does not provide a standard error or confidence intervals for the
coefficient.

For two unique raters and no missing ratings both, Stata's kap and the
kappaetc command, estimate the same Cohen's kappa coefficient. The standard
error and p-value will differ between the two results, though. Stata's kap
command implements a model-based (theoretical) approximate formula for the
standard error and reports a one-sided test using the standard normal
distribution.  kappaetc implements a design-based formula to obtain the
standard error and reports a two-sided t test with n-1 degrees of freedom.
kappaetc will, additionally, provide a confidence interval.

For more than two (nonunique) raters and no missing ratings (i.e. a constant
number of raters) both, Stata's kap (or kappa) command and kappaetc
(possibly with the frequency option) estimate the same Fleiss' kappa
coefficient. kappaetc will, however, not report a kappa value for each
rating category. Standard errors and p-values will differ between the
commands for the same reasons explained in the two unique raters case above.

--- End of excerpt from help for kappaetc ----

A last minor comment on category 4 not being used by either rater. In such a
case it is useful to specify all possible rating categories with the
-categories()- option of -kappaetc-. Failing to do so results in wrong
estimates for Gwet's AC and the Brennan and Prediger coefficient, both of
which depend on the number of rating categories. Note that weighted kappa
might also be off.

Best
Daniel


Gwet, K. L. (2014). Handbook of Inter-Rater Reliability. Gaithersburg,
MD: Advanced Analytics, LLC.

Gwet, K. L. (2008). Computing inter-rater reliability and its variance
in the presence of high agreement. British Journal of Mathematical and
Statistical Psycholgy, 61, 29-48.

Reichenheim, M. E. (2004). Confidence intervals for the kappa
statistic. The Stata Journal, 4, 421-428.



bdates wrote
> Thanks, Bruce. I've sent an email to him. He mentions Gwet in his
> acknowledgments, so it'll be interesting what Gwet says about all of this.
>
> Brian
>
> ________________________________________
> From: SPSSX(r) Discussion [

> SPSSX-L@.UGA

> ] on behalf of Bruce Weaver [

> bruce.weaver@

> ]
> Sent: Monday, October 09, 2017 4:45 PM
> To:

> SPSSX-L@.UGA

> Subject: Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa
>
> Hi Brian.  The author of kappaetc can be reached via the e-mail address at
> the bottom of that text file I uploaded.  You could always ask him
> directly
> what method(s) he used.
>
> Cheers,
> Bruce
>
>
>
> bdates wrote
>> Bruce,
>>
>> Thanks for this. I'm wondering what formulae they're using for category
>> SE's. I'm going to check with other sources and get back to you. This is
>> certainly a conundrum. We have multiple results from multiple sources. I
>> didn't send this along, but I also used the application from
>> RealStatistics in Excel and got the same results as my syntax and that of
>> Gwet's SAS solution. I'm using the updated 1979 computation for the
>> kappa's and standard errors. Maybe they're using the 1971 version.
>>
>> Brian
>>
>>
>> ________________________________________
>> From: SPSSX(r) Discussion [
>
>> SPSSX-L@.UGA
>
>> ] on behalf of Bruce Weaver [
>
>> bruce.weaver@
>
>> ]
>> Sent: Monday, October 09, 2017 2:23 PM
>> To:
>
>> SPSSX-L@.UGA
>
>> Subject: Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa
>>
>> Thanks Brian.  I don't know if this will helpful to you or not, but I've
>> uploaded (in Nabble) a text file containing results from some analyses
>> carried out using kappaetc, a user-written program for Stata.
>> Unfortunately, kappaetc does not report a kappa for each category
>> separately.  But with a little programming, I was able to obtain those.
>> But
>> the way I did it yielded the same SE for every category, and it matched
>> the
>> value shown by the Python extension command for SPSS.
>>
>> Below my output, I appended the help file info for kappaetc (including a
>> reference list), in case it is helpful to you.
>>
>> Cheers,
>> Bruce
>>
>> Fleiss_kappa_problem.txt
>> &lt;http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t7186/Fleiss_kappa_problem.txt&gt;
>>
>>
>> bdates wrote
>>> I'm uploading a Word document with the results of my syntax, Kilem
>>> Gwet's
>>> SAS
>>> macro, and the SPSS Python extension, in that order. I'm also uploading
>>> an
>>> SPSS data file with the raw data. Notice the Standard Error column in
>>> the
>>> Python extension solution. All values are the same.
>>>
>>> Brian Fleiss_kappa_Discrepancies.docx
>>> &lt;http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t47633/Fleiss_kappa_Discrepancies.docx&gt;
>>> irr_test_data.sav
>>> &lt;http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t47633/irr_test_data.sav&gt;
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>> --
>>> Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/
>>>
>>> =====================
>>> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to
>>
>>> LISTSERV@.UGA
>>
>>>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
>>> command. To leave the list, send the command
>>> SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
>>> For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
>>> INFO REFCARD
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>> -----
>> --
>> Bruce Weaver
>
>> bweaver@
>
>> http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/
>>
>> "When all else fails, RTFM."
>>
>> NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
>> To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.
>>
>> --
>> Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/
>>
>> =====================
>> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to
>
>> LISTSERV@.UGA
>
>>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
>> command. To leave the list, send the command
>> SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
>> For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
>> INFO REFCARD
>>
>> =====================
>> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to
>
>> LISTSERV@.UGA
>
>>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
>> command. To leave the list, send the command
>> SIGNOFF SPSSX-L
>> For a list of commands to manage subscriptions, send the command
>> INFO REFCARD
>
>
>
>
>
> -----
> --
> Bruce Weaver

> bweaver@

> http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/
>
> "When all else fails, RTFM."
>
> NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
> To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.
>
> --
> Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/
>
> =====================
> To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to

> LISTSERV@.UGA

>  (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
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>
> =====================
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> command. To leave the list, send the command
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-----
--
Bruce Weaver
[hidden email]<mailto:[hidden email]>
http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/

"When all else fails, RTFM."

NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.

--
Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/

=====================
To manage your subscription to SPSSX-L, send a message to
[hidden email]<mailto:[hidden email]> (not to SPSSX-L), with no body text except the
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=====================
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--
Jon K Peck
[hidden email]<mailto:[hidden email]>

=====================
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Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa

Bruce Weaver
Administrator
Brian, when you've finished sorting it all out, I hope you'll post a summary.
(It might be cleaner to start a new thread, with a link to this one for
anyone who wants the history.)  It would be great if you could upload the
data & output to Nabble again too.  

Meanwhile, I've added Gwet's 2014 book (http://www.agreestat.com/book4/) to
my Amazon.ca wish list.  

Cheers,
Bruce




bdates wrote
> Thanks, Jon. I have all those works. I'm in the process of making changes
> in my syntax and have alerted Kilem Gwet to check his syntax for Fleiss'
> kappa to make sure the also has those updates.
>
> Take care.
>
> Brian
> ________________________________________
> From: Jon Peck [

> jkpeck@

> ]
> Sent: Tuesday, October 10, 2017 4:28 PM
> To: Dates, Brian;

> SPSSX-L@.uga

> Subject: Re: [SPSSX-L] SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa
>
> For the SPSS extension...
>
> From the 2003 text, the formula for the standard error for each category
> used in the extension is formula 18.53 on page 616. This is based on:
>
> Fleiss, J. L., J. C. M. Nee, and J. R. Landis. (1979). Large sample
> variance of kappa in the case of different sets of raters. Psychological
> Bulletin 86: 974–977.
>
> On Tue, Oct 10, 2017 at 1:52 PM Dates, Brian &lt;

> BDATES@

> &lt;mailto:

> BDATES@

> &gt;> wrote:
> Thank-you, Bruce, and please thank Daniel Klein as well. First, let me
> clarify. The overall kappa's, standard errors, etc. produced from each
> solution are the same. The category kappa's produced from each solution
> are also the same. What differs is the standard errors. My syntax and the
> SAS syntax written by Gwet (INTER_RATER.MAC) produce the same standard
> errors which are different from those produced by the SPSS or Stata
> solutions. Fleiss, Nee, and Landis (1979) updated the formula for the
> standard error for the overall kappa. It seems that all the solutions have
> adopted that. There was also an update to the category standard error,
> which produces one standard error for all categories rather than a
> separate error for each category. The SPSS Python and Stata solutions have
> incorporated this. I need to update my syntax, but also contact the
> authors of other syntax about this issue.
>
> Again, thank-you vary much for your facilitation in this situation. It has
> truly made things go much quicker than otherwise.
>
> Brian
>
> ________________________________________
> From: SPSSX(r) Discussion [

> SPSSX-L@.UGA

> &lt;mailto:

> SPSSX-L@.UGA

> &gt;] on behalf of Bruce Weaver [

> bruce.weaver@

> &lt;mailto:

> bruce.weaver@

> &gt;]
> Sent: Tuesday, October 10, 2017 3:02 PM
> To:

> SPSSX-L@.UGA

> &lt;mailto:

> SPSSX-L@.UGA

> &gt;
> Subject: Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa
>
> Hi Brian.  I also sent Daniel Klein an e-mail alerting him to this thread.
> He does not use SPSS, and is probably not going to join this list himself.
> But he did ask me to post the following comments he sent me.
>
> Cheers,
> Bruce
> -------------------------------------
>
> First, note that Gwet (2008, 2014) uses an approach to statistical
> inference
> that is quite different from anything that has been proposed so far in the
> area of inter-rater agreement. He calls what is usually done the
> "model-based" approach. Here, a hypothetical distribution of the kappa
> coefficient under H0 is used to derive test statistics for testing against
> 0. Such approaches are not necessarily valid for confidence interval
> construction (also see  Reichenheim 2004). So I suppose there might be a
> reason why StataCorp decided not to return a standard error and confidence
> interval in their -kap- coammand. What
> Gwet (2008, 2014) suggest instead is a "design-based" approach that is
> based
> on finite sample theory and that is implemented in -kappaetc-. This
> explains
> the difference between the standard error that Brian obtains for combined
> kappa (0.05770; which is what you confirm using the -kap- command) and the
> SE reported by Gwet's SAS macro (0.08132) and -kappaetc- (0.08223). To say
> more about the (small) difference between the latter two, I would need to
> know which macro was used to produce the results. Brian states that he
> used
> INTER_RATER.MAC but does neither state the software version nor where it
> is
> from.
>
> [BW:  I believe the loop Daniel mentions in the next paragraph is
> referring
> to the Stata output I uploaded here:
> http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t7186/Fleiss_kappa_problem.txt.]
>
> When you program the loop to get kappa for each category, note that
> -kappaetc- does not(!) report the same standard error every time. It
> differs
> for each category. It is the SE you obtain from -kap- that is constant
> across categories. As I have said, I do not know whether this SE is
> trustworthy for confidence interval construction but it seems the Python
> extension uses the very same approach. Note that it is documented in [R]
> kappa. However, the SEs reported by -kappaetc- do not match Brian's or
> those
> from the SAS macro. I have no explanation for that. All I can tell you is
> that -kappaetc- does nothing special here, i.e., it retains Gwet's
> "design-based" approach. It seems the SAS macro and Brian have implemented
> another formula to get the SE for
> each category, separately (and perhaps there is a reason for this). It
> seems
> a bit odd to me that the SEs are so much higher than the combined one,
> given
> that they are all based on the same number of subjects. Also, I find it
> somehow counterintuitive to clearly rejecting the null in the combined
> coefficient when only one of the category-wise coefficients is
> statistically
> significant different from zero.
>
> I notice that the help file for -kappaetc- might be misleading or
> incomplete
> concerning differences to Stata's -kap- and -kappa-. Here is the already
> revised paragraph that will be included in an updated version of
> -kappaetc-
> (hopefuly towards the end of the year).
>
> --- Start of excerpt from help for kappaetc ----
>
> Relation to official Stata's kap and kappa commands
>
> The percent agreement that is reported by kappaetc is the same as the
> observed agreement returned by Stata's kap command. The latter, however,
> does not provide a standard error or confidence intervals for the
> coefficient.
>
> For two unique raters and no missing ratings both, Stata's kap and the
> kappaetc command, estimate the same Cohen's kappa coefficient. The
> standard
> error and p-value will differ between the two results, though. Stata's kap
> command implements a model-based (theoretical) approximate formula for the
> standard error and reports a one-sided test using the standard normal
> distribution.  kappaetc implements a design-based formula to obtain the
> standard error and reports a two-sided t test with n-1 degrees of freedom.
> kappaetc will, additionally, provide a confidence interval.
>
> For more than two (nonunique) raters and no missing ratings (i.e. a
> constant
> number of raters) both, Stata's kap (or kappa) command and kappaetc
> (possibly with the frequency option) estimate the same Fleiss' kappa
> coefficient. kappaetc will, however, not report a kappa value for each
> rating category. Standard errors and p-values will differ between the
> commands for the same reasons explained in the two unique raters case
> above.
>
> --- End of excerpt from help for kappaetc ----
>
> A last minor comment on category 4 not being used by either rater. In such
> a
> case it is useful to specify all possible rating categories with the
> -categories()- option of -kappaetc-. Failing to do so results in wrong
> estimates for Gwet's AC and the Brennan and Prediger coefficient, both of
> which depend on the number of rating categories. Note that weighted kappa
> might also be off.
>
> Best
> Daniel
>
>
> Gwet, K. L. (2014). Handbook of Inter-Rater Reliability. Gaithersburg,
> MD: Advanced Analytics, LLC.
>
> Gwet, K. L. (2008). Computing inter-rater reliability and its variance
> in the presence of high agreement. British Journal of Mathematical and
> Statistical Psycholgy, 61, 29-48.
>
> Reichenheim, M. E. (2004). Confidence intervals for the kappa
> statistic. The Stata Journal, 4, 421-428.
>
>
>
> bdates wrote
>> Thanks, Bruce. I've sent an email to him. He mentions Gwet in his
>> acknowledgments, so it'll be interesting what Gwet says about all of
>> this.
>>
>> Brian
>>
>> ________________________________________
>> From: SPSSX(r) Discussion [
>
>> SPSSX-L@.UGA
>
>> ] on behalf of Bruce Weaver [
>
>> bruce.weaver@
>
>> ]
>> Sent: Monday, October 09, 2017 4:45 PM
>> To:
>
>> SPSSX-L@.UGA
>
>> Subject: Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa
>>
>> Hi Brian.  The author of kappaetc can be reached via the e-mail address
>> at
>> the bottom of that text file I uploaded.  You could always ask him
>> directly
>> what method(s) he used.
>>
>> Cheers,
>> Bruce
>>
>>
>>
>> bdates wrote
>>> Bruce,
>>>
>>> Thanks for this. I'm wondering what formulae they're using for category
>>> SE's. I'm going to check with other sources and get back to you. This is
>>> certainly a conundrum. We have multiple results from multiple sources. I
>>> didn't send this along, but I also used the application from
>>> RealStatistics in Excel and got the same results as my syntax and that
>>> of
>>> Gwet's SAS solution. I'm using the updated 1979 computation for the
>>> kappa's and standard errors. Maybe they're using the 1971 version.
>>>
>>> Brian
>>>
>>>
>>> ________________________________________
>>> From: SPSSX(r) Discussion [
>>
>>> SPSSX-L@.UGA
>>
>>> ] on behalf of Bruce Weaver [
>>
>>> bruce.weaver@
>>
>>> ]
>>> Sent: Monday, October 09, 2017 2:23 PM
>>> To:
>>
>>> SPSSX-L@.UGA
>>
>>> Subject: Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa
>>>
>>> Thanks Brian.  I don't know if this will helpful to you or not, but I've
>>> uploaded (in Nabble) a text file containing results from some analyses
>>> carried out using kappaetc, a user-written program for Stata.
>>> Unfortunately, kappaetc does not report a kappa for each category
>>> separately.  But with a little programming, I was able to obtain those.
>>> But
>>> the way I did it yielded the same SE for every category, and it matched
>>> the
>>> value shown by the Python extension command for SPSS.
>>>
>>> Below my output, I appended the help file info for kappaetc (including a
>>> reference list), in case it is helpful to you.
>>>
>>> Cheers,
>>> Bruce
>>>
>>> Fleiss_kappa_problem.txt
>>> &lt;http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t7186/Fleiss_kappa_problem.txt&gt;
>>>
>>>
>>> bdates wrote
>>>> I'm uploading a Word document with the results of my syntax, Kilem
>>>> Gwet's
>>>> SAS
>>>> macro, and the SPSS Python extension, in that order. I'm also uploading
>>>> an
>>>> SPSS data file with the raw data. Notice the Standard Error column in
>>>> the
>>>> Python extension solution. All values are the same.
>>>>
>>>> Brian Fleiss_kappa_Discrepancies.docx
>>>> &lt;http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t47633/Fleiss_kappa_Discrepancies.docx&gt;
>>>> irr_test_data.sav
>>>> &lt;http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/file/t47633/irr_test_data.sav&gt;
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> --
>>>> Sent from: http://spssx-discussion.1045642.n5.nabble.com/
>>>>
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>>>
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>> -----
>>> --
>>> Bruce Weaver
>>
>>> bweaver@
>>
>>> http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/
>>>
>>> "When all else fails, RTFM."
>>>
>>> NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
>>> To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.
>>>
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>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>> -----
>> --
>> Bruce Weaver
>
>> bweaver@
>
>> http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/
>>
>> "When all else fails, RTFM."
>>
>> NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
>> To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.
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>> --
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>
>
>
>
>
> -----
> --
> Bruce Weaver

> bweaver@

> &lt;mailto:

> bweaver@

> &gt;
> http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/
>
> "When all else fails, RTFM."
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-----
--
Bruce Weaver
[hidden email]
http://sites.google.com/a/lakeheadu.ca/bweaver/

"When all else fails, RTFM."

NOTE: My Hotmail account is not monitored regularly.
To send me an e-mail, please use the address shown above.

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Bruce Weaver
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Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa

Art Kendall
In reply to this post by bdates
There are also inter-judge, inter-coder, and inter-rater approaches in the
Krippendorf macros.
Variance components provide and approach for more complex designs using
ratings.




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Art Kendall
Social Research Consultants
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Art Kendall
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Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa

bdates
Good point. The advantage of Krippendorff's alpha is that it will handle not only nominal data, but ordinal, interval, and ratio as well. It's also tailored to allow for missing data. The one caution in being overly exuberant is that when there are no missing data, as the number of subjects/items increases, the values are identical to Fleiss' kappa with nominal data.

Brian

________________________________________
From: SPSSX(r) Discussion [[hidden email]] on behalf of Art Kendall [[hidden email]]
Sent: Wednesday, October 18, 2017 3:34 PM
To: [hidden email]
Subject: Re: SPSS Python Extension for Fleiss Kappa

There are also inter-judge, inter-coder, and inter-rater approaches in the
Krippendorf macros.
Variance components provide and approach for more complex designs using
ratings.




-----
Art Kendall
Social Research Consultants
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